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synonymMouse weddingMouse marry (folklore)
A mouse marries a woman, also known as a mouse marries a woman, a mouse marries a woman, Mouse wedding This old traditional folklore is very popular in China. As China Folk belief Is a Chinese tradition Folk culture One of the most influential topics in the first month is the ritual of the rat, and its plot "versions" are different. The specific date varies from place to place, some are on the seventh day of the first month, some are on the 25th day of the first month, many areas are on the tenth day of the first month, and some are in the middle of the night of the 14th month of the first month of the summer calendar. Shanxi (Province) Pingyao county Tenth general flatbread The root of the wall is called" He marries a mouse ".
Chinese name
A mouse marries a girl
Mouse wedding , rattlewort , Mouse wedding
Time of sacrifice
The first month of the lunar year

Folk custom

Folk belief
In the folklore of the Jiangnan area, it is said that rats are harmful and unlucky, so Old Chinese calendar Marry it off on the eve of New Year's Eve to ensure a safe and auspicious coming year. Shanghai suburb Some places say that the mouse marries the woman on the sixteenth day of the first month, that night, every household Fried sesame Sugar, that's what mice are made for Wedding candies .

Story version

Once upon a time, an old mouse couple lived in a damp, cold black hole, watching their beautiful daughter grow up day by day. The couple promised to find the best in-laws for the girl, to let the girl get rid of this invisible life. So the mouse couple went out to look for their relatives. As soon as I went out, I saw the manly sun in the sky. The sun, they thought, was the most powerful thing in the world, and any dark ghost feared its rays. When a daughter marries the sun, doesn't she marry the light? The sun heard the request of the mouse and his wife, and frowned and said, "Venerable old people, I am not as strong as you think, and the dark clouds can cover my light." The mouse couple were speechless. So he came to Black Cloud and asked her for a bride. Black cloud replied with a wry smile: "Although I have the power to block the light, but only need a breeze, can let me 'cloud'." The mouse couple thought and found the wind that restrained the dark clouds. Wind laughed: "I can blow away the dark clouds, but only a wall can subdue me!" The mouse couple found the wall again, and the wall saw them, showing a look of fear: "In this world, I am most afraid of you mice, no matter how strong the wall can not resist the mice to make holes, and eventually collapse." The mouse couple looked at each other, it seems that we mice are the most powerful. The two old men discussed, who are we mice afraid of? Oh, by the way! Since ancient times mice have been afraid of cats! So the mouse couple found the cat and insisted on marrying the cat. The cat laughed and agreed. On the wedding day, the mice married off their most beautiful daughters with the most solemn ceremony. The unexpected happened. The cat came out from behind and ate his bride in one bite.

Folk belief

Version type
Rat married woman, also known as rat marriage, rat na woman, etc., the old Chinese folk belief, held in the first month of the ritual mouse activities, is very popular in our country, is the tradition Folk culture One of the most influential topics in China. Although the expression of mouse marrying woman in folk culture is colorful, the plot version "and" marrying woman "time and common belief are different in different places.
A mouse marries a girl
The origin of the zodiac
" The origin of the zodiac "Said, Jade Emperor Send a cat to notify cattle and tigers and other animals heaven ranking second. After the mouse overheard the cat's message, he came first, and the confused Jade Emperor sealed it as the first of the twelve zodiac signs. The cat was pushed out of the zodiac, and has since formed a deep feud with the rat. The mouse wanted to dissolve the resentment with the cat, so he asked the weasel to make a match and betrothed his most beautiful daughter to the cat. The cat said yes. So the mouse chose the auspicious time, and stole a child's tigerhead shoes to make a bridal chair, and sent his daughter to the cat's nest. The result is that the mouse marries the woman and marries the cat's belly. "Mouse married girl" said: Mouse king selected the twelfth month to marry the girl. On the day of the wedding, when the world is busy with New Year's goods, people push the mill, make non-stop. The rat king was furious: "People make fun of me for a day, I make fun of people for a year!" People suffered a great loss, so they were not allowed to push the mill on the rat's wedding day...
Taiwan custom
Taiwan residents believe that the third day of the year, the legend of the third night is the wedding day of mice, so late at night do not light lights, sprinkle rice and salt on the ground, people want to go to bed in the morning, does not affect the happy events of mice.
On the tenth day of Pingyao County, Shanxi Province, flatbread was placed on the root of the wall, named" He marries a mouse ".
In some areas of Qinghai there are" Steam blind mice "The custom. Every year on the 14th day of the first lunar month, every family kneads twelve mice with noodles, without pinching the eyes, and then steam them in a steamer and put them on the Lantern Festival altar. , merge Light up Burn incense, beg mice only grass-fed roots, do not harm the crops, in order to preserve the harvest.
Shanghai suburb In some places, it is said that the mouse married the woman in the sixteenth month of the first month, this night, every family stir-fry sesame sugar, which is the wedding sugar prepared for the mouse. There are also customs around Shanghai to avoid mice falling through. Mice go out for food, fall to the ground, called "mouse frustrated", it is said to see more unlucky, not illness or death, must 禳解. The method is to beg for white rice along the street, called hundreds of meters, and go home to cook rice, which can be dissolved after eating.
Xiaogan local folk legend also said that on the night of the fifteenth day of the first month, it was the day that the mouse married the woman, and people could not make noise at home. Women light one under the bed Sesame oil lamp He said, "Please look at the lamp, Red Lady." It is said that this way, a year without cimicid I was harassed. People still use Bamboo basket Throw the cotton over the house. If you look up to the Lord, the harvest will fail.
In some places, the custom of the day when the mouse marries the woman is also used as witchcraft. Such as Shaanxi Qianyang The 15th day of the first month is regarded as the day for a mouse to marry a woman. This day Every family makes rat buns. The new daughter-in-law who passed the door when he ate the rat tail of the rat hamburger, he could be pregnant; Throw the rat bread into the new daughter-in-law's room through the window, and the "rat" will face up to the sky as a sign of giving birth to a male, and vice versa. Henan folklore, the first month The seventh day Seventeen, twenty-seven is the day of the mouse to marry the girl, the saying goes "the seventh day to marry, seventeen to marry, twenty-seven to add the baby", so the above three days to eat dumplings.
In the north, a mouse marries a woman on the night of the 25th day of the first lunar month. On this night, every household does not light a lamp, and the whole family sits on the kang, silently, just eating the "mouse paw" and "mouse paw" made of flour in the dark. Scorpion Tails "and stir-fried soybeans. Not to light the lamp, silent means to provide convenience for the mouse to marry the woman, for fear of disturbing the wedding. Eating "rat PAWS" means that people expect the rat's PAWS to itch, so that it can get up and move. Eating the "scorpion tail" is so that the mouse will not be harmed by the scorpion when the woman marries out of the hole. Eat fried soybeans issued a pop of crunchy sound, it seems to be set off firecrackers for the mouse wedding.
Hunan custom
Ningyuan, Hunan Province, on the 17th as "mouse married woman" this day do not open the box, afraid of alarming mice. The night before, the children will candy. Peanuts, etc. are placed in the dark, and the pan lid and dustpan and other large things hit big, for the mouse makeup, the next morning, the rat hole blocked, that from now on the rat can be extinct forever.
On the night the mouse marries the girl, Hunan Zixing In the other place, candles are placed in the corners and aisles, which means that the road of the mouse's marriage is illuminated. There are also areas in the mouse married day avoid sewing, afraid of tying the mouse nest, avoid lighting lights at night, afraid of disturbing the mouse woman's sedan, go to bed very early, do not disturb the mouse, the common say you disturb it for a day, it disturbs you for a year.
Yi people cottage custom
In addition, in addition to the Han, Yi people cottage on the fifteenth day of the first month is called "Rat marry female Festival". As the Legend goes, Ancient times Flooding, only Fuxi. The sisters survived by entering the military. But when the flood receded, they could not get out. It was the rats that gnawed the reeders that set them free, so that humans could Multiply and prosper . The ancient Yi folk song still retains the phrase "Child mice gnawing through the red fragrant wood, revealing the embroidered shoes of the Queen Mother", Pan Gu Come out to open heaven and earth, sister Fuxi make people "and so on. This probably evolved from the legend of rats saving ancestors. Still, there are Yi people who believe that rats should share food with humans, because they are the ones who give human beings a new life. The Yi people in some areas even thought it would be a pity if there were no mice to keep them company after building houses. As far as they're concerned, there's only Mouse Wish The place to come is the best place, people will live in abundance of food and wealth, food and clothing, no disaster no difficulty. What is even more interesting is that in the Yi language, the mouse is called "black" or "A black", and the day is called "Heini", which means "the day of the mouse". Therefore, it is not difficult to find that behind the Yi people's worship of mice, there is an important primitive concept: human (at least the Yi people) Social life It started when the rat gnawed the Rong Lu and released the Fuxi sisters.
On the first day of the first lunar month, The Korean nationality Be also there This day will go on Rat fire Folk activities. Farm children spread straw on the ridge and set it on fire to burn the weeds and drive them away vole The purpose of... This folk activity is conducive to exterminating rats and insects, Plant ash It can also fertilize the field. In addition, the son day belongs to the rat, burning a rat fire on this day, its symbolic so that people get psychological satisfaction.
Yichang mores
Yichang Folklore says that the 24th day of the twelfth month is the day when a mouse marries a woman, it is forbidden to sweep, especially not to use scissors, otherwise the next year is infinite damage to mice. "Drive mice" is a farmer to pray to reduce the activities of rats, day just Ma Ma bright, adults will encourage the children at home quickly get up, shirtless, children put on one foot Straw sandals Tie the other foot shoelace Dragging the shoe, holding the dustpan in your left hand and the dustpan in your right hand Wooden hammer Or stick, and then to every corner of the room, beating the dustpan inside the read: "Dustpan scrape two scrape, straw shoes drag two drag, mouse son twelve nests, nest shuttle (abortion)." "Twenty-four, clap the dustpan, the mouse will not be able to spoil the child..." This is the curse of the mouse, the desire to achieve the grain warehouse without damage.

Customs and customs

Stone birthday
On this day, stone tools such as grinding and grinding were not allowed to move, and even stones were sacrificed for fear of harming crops. Also called" Stone immovability "" Ten immovability ". On this day, every family burns incense in tribute to stones. Lunch must eat bread, thinking that eating bread within a year will be good fortune. In Shandong Yuncheng (a county in Shandong Province) Et cetera Lift the stone An act of God. On the ninth night, people freeze a crock on a smooth stone, and on the morning of the tenth day, the nose of the crock is tied with a rope, and ten young men take turns to carry the crock. If the stone does not fall, it indicates a good harvest.
Old China Folk belief . In the first month of the ritual mouse activities, also known as "mouse marry woman" and "mouse marry." The specific date varies from place to place, some are on the seventh day of the first month, some are on the 25th day of the first month, and many areas are on the tenth day of the first month. Shanxi (Province) Pingyao county Tenth general flatbread The root of the wall is called" He marries a mouse ". Hunan (Province) Ningyuan On the seventeenth day of the "mouse married woman", do not open the cabinet for fear of alarming the mouse. The night before, the children will candy. Place peanuts, etc. in a dark place and cover the pot dustpan Such big things hit big, for the mouse Cui makeup, the next morning, the rat hole blocked, thinking that since then the genus can be extinct forever. There are also areas that go to bed very early on the day of the mouse's marriage, and do not bother the mouse, it is commonly said that you disturb it for a day, it disturbs you for a year.

Cultural meaning

It is generally believed that the acts and taboos of the day of rat marrying women are essentially a kind of rat sacrificing-activities, and various kinds of rat marriage stories, ballads and folk crafts such as New Year pictures and paper-cuts are the explanations for the rat sacrificing-activities. Why did rats become objects of worship or worship? There are about two reasons: First, totemism, as some people think of ancient A surname With the rat as the totem. Two, about rats Induced myth For example, the Legend of the Twelve Genera of the Han Nationality said that the rat has the power to open heaven and earth and transform everything. The Yi nationality According to the myth "The Man who Came out of the Gourd", human beings originated from the gourd, and the gourd was originally sealed, and mice chewed a hole in the gourd, and human beings were born. The Yao nationality Myth, The Legend of the Grain, She ethnic minority group According to the myth "Why does the Ear of Rice Look like the Tail of a Mouse", rats helped humans to get the rice seeds. These legends reflect the rat's role in the worship of ancient animal gods Special status . As for the relationship between rat marriage and rat worship, Zhong Fulan It is believed that this is a relic of the ancient custom of showing respect or friendliness to mice.
Some people think that as folklore Cultural event the Mouse Married women, expressed the people's root Rat infestation The desire of; The reason why the "marriage" method is used is because of the fear of rats, so to provide food, lights out and other pleasing behaviors to meet the preferences of rats to hide the real purpose, which is a kind of ambivalence The choice of seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages. For example, Wang Shucun believes that there is no unified "rat eradication day" in ancient times, and after the start of spring, mice Breeding season In order not to Damage caused by rats People draw" Mouse wedding The actual action is to turn off the lights at night to put out the fire, trick the young children to sleep early, in order to lure the rats out of the hole to kill them (" Mouse wedding China Cultural Relics News, February 18, 1996). Ma Changyi It is believed that the concept of marrying disaster has a long history. "Dialect One" : "Marry, go also. What comes out of one's own house is called marriage, and what comes out of a woman is called marriage." The so-called marriage disaster, marriage, marriage rats, contains the disaster, right and wrong, rats and insects out of the family meaning. Folk belief The date of marriage for rats is mostly in The 23rd of the twelfth month To the 25th of the first month, this is the peak season of rat breeding, sending rats to marry means sending rats "out of their own homes", from people's psychological point of view, it can achieve the purpose of eradicating rat infestation; On the other hand, a mouse marrying a woman is a product of the belief in the mother god of the child mouse in the culture. Rat is the first of the twelve branches, "the child is the cathode, hidden and obscure, with the rat." The child mouse is a symbol of extreme Yin, and the lunar month to the first month, it is the alternating moment of the new and old years, so choose this time to marry the mouse, but also has the old and new, send Yin Ying Yang, remove the disaster Naji the Symbolic meaning .

Paper-cut art

A mouse marries a girl
Around 1980, the haze of the "Cultural Revolution" gradually dissipated, with the deepening of the rectification of the chaos and the rise of the tide of reform, we finally obtained a legitimate study, appreciation and analysis Folk art The right. The old entertainer was invited to the university platform. After hearing the news, the dealers brought excellent folk crafts from all over the country into the art colleges. That's when I bought my set of "Mouse Marries Woman" along with a large collection of paper cuttings. It was a treasure that I treasure to this day. "A Mouse Marries a Woman" is a popular folk story. It is said that the mouse couple want to use their daughter's marriage to marry a relative with authority. They went to the sun, and the sun said no, I'm afraid of the clouds. Go to find dark clouds, dark clouds said no, I am afraid of the wind. And look for the wind, Wind theory No, we're afraid of walls. Find the wall. The wall says we fear you the most. A mouse couple thought, so we are the most afraid, that must be the most powerful. So choose the auspicious day, blow blow beat daughter sent to the cat, then needless to say. Today, in our view, this is almost a ridiculous farce, but it reflects the complex psychology of the ancestors to respect mice, love mice, and repel mice. Long in our country Feudal society In, Family economy In farming and Handicraft industry The dominant position in production, so the population boom becomes Sustainable development And an important guarantee of prosperity. Many children became the expectation of the people. The mouse, with its amazing reproductive ability, is called the "son God" and is worshipped, but its abominable behavior is really intolerable. Both need it, it is inconvenient to offend, so deduce such a wonderful and interesting story, "two birds with one stone", glossy, noisy resolve this contradiction. The wisdom and wisdom of the ancestors to pray for disaster really make us marvel! This story has both people's expectation and the scene of prosperity, thus becoming Folk New Year pictures , Folk paper-cutting Favorite subject matter. This set of "Mouse married woman" paper-cut a total of ten, and like most New Year pictures and paper-cuts, it selected" Accompany a bride on a wedding day "A paragraph. Just like the "shooting" of the film and television, the ten pictures show the hot and festive scenes and atmosphere of the wedding. Among them, "bridal Chair" is A drama involving much drama or drama The picture is the largest. Others vary in size, and the content is the "gong", "flag", "flag" in the funeral ceremony. Hold an umbrella ", "holding the lamp", "lifting objects", and a "rat riding" presumably "mother's family"!
folk Paper-cut art Spread for a long time, is the most popular, the most popular art style. In our country Vast territory On the land, from south to north, from west to east, all places have their own paper-cut art, as different as the dialect, each with distinct characteristics. This set of paper cuts comes from Shandong province High density Gaomi is the famous hometown of paper-cut art. It begins with Line carving Mainly, the fine and powerful lines and a little "block surface" form a sharp contrast, reflecting the unique elegance and dexterity of women. Appreciate the folk paper-cut, you will realize that "ingenuity" is its acquisition of permanence Artistic charm The root of it. Most folk artists do not know what "anatomy", "perspective", nor do they know what "structure" and "proportion". However, they have their own set of cognition and understanding in life and art Expression mode That is to embrace the world with the mind and express the world with the mind. They move us with a vivid image and warm us with a piece of hot emotion. Look at that Mouse girl The beautiful, Sedan bearer The old age, the mischief of the gong mouse, and the publicity of the maiden mouse can be read one by one. The scene space and composition changes of the picture are handled so calmly, skillfully and skillfully that we are amazed. A pair of scissors, a piece of red paper, can not be simpler, but create a bright world. Those who have always been regarded as uncultured people have created brilliant culture, conquered the people and conquered the world. The United Nations We are proud that UNESCO has included our paper-cut art in the first batch of intangible Cultural Heritage protection list.