Ministry of Science and Technology Torch center high-tech enterprise division
It has been more than three years since the introduction of the "Measures for the Identification and Administration of High-tech Enterprises", which encourages enterprises to increase investment in research and development and guides enterprises to take the road of independent innovation. In accordance with the provisions of the administrative measures for the period of validity of high-tech enterprises for three years, the period of validity of newly recognized high-tech enterprises in 2008 has expired. At this time, for a high-tech enterprise group that has experienced a complete cycle, there are a series of questions that need to be studied, analyzed and answered in order to provide references for further improvement of policies. This paper focuses on the analysis of the guiding effect of high-tech enterprise policies on enterprise independent innovation, and attempts to show that through policy guidance, high-tech enterprises' continuous research and development ability has been enhanced, technological innovation has been more active, and intellectual property rights enjoyed by enterprises' core technologies have been further enhanced. First of all, under the conditions of market economy, enterprises, as the main body of market competition, instinctively choose to seek advantages and avoid disadvantages. The state's support for high-tech enterprises not only has the direct reduction of enterprise income tax, but also has the sharp appreciation of intangible assets brought by the golden brand of "high-tech enterprises". Therefore, obtaining the title of high-tech enterprise and enjoying corresponding preferential policies has become the pursuit of many enterprises. In order to meet the conditions stipulated by the policy, many enterprises have invested heavily in research and development. According to statistical analysis, in 2008, the average R&D intensity of newly identified high-tech enterprises exceeded 3%, of which 58% of enterprises exceeded 6%, 27% of enterprises R & D intensity was about 10%, and the average R&D investment per household reached 9.61 million yuan. In the past three years, the company has carried out more than 150,000 research and development projects, with an average of 3 projects per year for each company, and the average scale of each project is more than 3 million yuan. After the identification, all or most of the R&D investment made by the enterprise will be returned to the enterprise through the form of income tax deduction, in order to encourage the enterprise to conduct R&D reinvestment. Once enterprises taste the sweetness of independent innovation, they will invest more in research and development to obtain continuous policy encouragement. From the specific provisions of the Measures for the Management of the identification of high-tech enterprises, the validity period of an identification is three years, and the enterprises that pass the identification can not be once and for all, under the guidance of the policy, enterprises must also carry out continuous research and development. In 2008, the total expenditure of old and new enterprises (51,476 in total, including more than 15,000 new enterprises) on scientific and technological activities amounted to 411.47 billion yuan, of which 246.47 billion yuan was spent internally on R&D. By 2010, the spending on scientific and technological activities of 35,000 new enterprises reached 608.27 billion yuan, and the internal spending on R&D was 269.43 billion yuan. This shows that by 2010, although the number of high-tech enterprises has decreased compared with 2008, the internal expenditure of scientific and technological activities and R&D funds has exceeded the amount in 2008, and the requirements for R&D intensity of high-tech enterprises under the new measures far exceed the original measures. By the time of the review in 2011, more than 12,000 of the more than 15,000 high-tech enterprises identified in 2008 had passed the review, with a passing rate of 83%. This shows that the vast majority of enterprises are still carrying out active independent innovation and scientific and technological research and development after passing the first identification, in order to continue to enjoy the title of high-tech enterprises and policies. As a result, the guidance of high-tech enterprise policies for enterprises to enhance research and development capabilities and technological innovation began to appear. The above data is the group index of high-tech enterprises, as far as the regional division is concerned, the specific data can still support the above conclusions. Take Anhui Province as an example. In 2010, high-tech enterprises in the province spent 19.53 billion yuan on scientific and technological activities, an increase of 16.9 percent over the previous year, accounting for 4 percent of the total revenue of enterprises in the year. The per capita expenditure of enterprises on scientific and technological activities was 176,000 yuan, an increase of 6 percent over the previous year; 705 companies spent more than 5% of their total revenue on science and technology activities, of which 278 companies spent more than 10%. The guidance of the new high-tech enterprise policy is not only effective for individual enterprises, but also plays a significant role in the development of China's entire high-tech industry. The focus of the high-tech enterprise policy is to cultivate a group of enterprises with independent research and development and technology industrialization capabilities, master core independent intellectual property rights through innovation-driven and endogenous growth, catch up with the world's industrial technology upgrading wave, and promote China's high-tech industry to evolve to the high-end value in the international division of labor. Together with other relevant policies, we will promote the historic transformation of high-tech industry from "big to strong" at an early date. According to incomplete statistics, as of the end of 2009, there were 3,676 high-tech enterprises between 50 million yuan and 200 million yuan, and 3,168 enterprises above 200 million yuan, respectively higher than the corresponding scale of high-tech enterprises under the original measures in 2008, 12.45% and 14%. This fully shows that the new high-tech enterprise policy strongly supports high-tech enterprises "both level and scale." In addition, the leading effect of high-tech enterprise policies is also reflected in guiding enterprises to improve their ability to obtain independent intellectual property rights and increase their protection and application. Having core independent intellectual property rights is one of the main indicators of applying for high-tech enterprises, and through policy guidance, enterprises have further strengthened their awareness of intellectual property rights and protection. In 2010, high-tech enterprises had a total of 456,000 effective patents, including 114,000 invention patents, and the average number of invention patents owned by high-tech enterprises per 10,000 people was 86.8. In that year, 251,000 patents were applied for, of which 107,000 were applied for invention patents, accounting for 38.1% of the total number of invention patent applications in China (281,000). In that year, 122,000 patents were authorized, including 25,000 invention patents, accounting for 33.8% of the total number of invention patents authorized in China (74,000). In terms of regional indicators, taking Anhui Province as an example, high-tech enterprises in Anhui province applied for 11044 patents in 2010, an increase of 72.2% over the previous year, including 3107 invention patents, an increase of 44.6% over the previous year, accounting for 28.1% of the total number of applications; In that year, 6,423 patents were authorized, an increase of 75% over the previous year, including 949 invention patents, an increase of 68.9% over the previous year, accounting for 14.8% of the total number of authorized patents.
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